Hazard mapping is a risk management and planning tool.
How Hazard Maps are Used
Hazard maps are especially valuable to government agencies, planners, engineers and scientists. They use the maps for study purposes, and to plan and develop disaster prevention and mitigation activities, such as establishing warning systems and evacuation procedures. An example is FEMA's Risk Map which depicts flood hazards, assesses watershed flood risks, and develops hazard mitigation plans. At the local level, users include land use planners who use hazard maps to help shape land use policies.
How Hazard Maps are Created and Published
1. The first step is to acquire a topographic map of an area. Where updated information is required, AeroMetric can obtain aerial photography and then create the maps and orthophotography.
2. Next, disaster information—such as the historic effects of flooding, or the potential for earth movement during earthquakes—are added as map layers.
3. Finally, disaster response actions—such as recommended and alternative evacuation routes—can be shown.
Enterprise GIS techniques are used to capture and display the data, and also make it user-friendly for government users and the public, when posted on the internet.